Friday, May 11, 2012

月黑高飛逃獄夜


區家麟|絢麗荒涼    (本文11/5/2012 刊於《信報》)

開始時你恨它,慢慢你習慣它,時間長了,你開始倚賴它



廣州白天鵝賓館大堂正中,有一個礙眼的鳥籠,三尖八角,毫無美感,似是風水陣。不鏽鋼牢籠裡,飼養了數十隻色彩斑斕的小鸚鵡。有一天,我在大堂閑坐等人時親眼目睹,一隻小鳥逃脫了。

奇怪的是,小鳥沒有拍翼高飛,它站在籠外,甚為焦躁,望著籠內的同伴,想鑽進牢籠裡。難怪,小鳥一生活在籠內,囚籠裡豐衣足食,又有親戚朋友,外面的世界風大雨大,怎可能適應。有遊客擔心小鳥安危,請服務員處理,服務員愛理不理地說:不用擔心,小鳥會找到洞口鑽回去的。

監獄電影Shawshank Redemption,有一句經典對白,已坐牢三十年的囚犯瑞德與主角安迪閑聊,談到監獄的牆:

「這些牆很可笑,開始時你恨它,慢慢你習慣它,時間長了,你開始倚賴它。」

瑞德形容,這過程叫建制化 (institutionalized)。當人被高牆所困,如鳥囚籠中,久而久之,磨滅意志,失去希望,成為高牆的一部分。

這齣電影,港譯《月黑高飛》,內地直譯《肖申克的救贖》,九四年推出時慘淡收場,但細水長流,慢慢發酵,後來獲選美國電影學會歷年百齣最佳美國電影之一。此片在內地網民間流傳甚廣,傳媒人兼作家熊培雲更稱之為「一生的教材」。最近盲人維權律師陳光誠奇迹「逃獄」成功,《肖申克的救贖》談強權之下,小人物的驚人意志,喻意豐盈,又再成為內地網民熱話。
安迪與瑞德
「肖申克」是一所監獄,銀行家安迪因被錯判殺妻,終身監禁。獄長道貌岸然,對安迪說:「救贖就在聖經裡。」獄長開口閉口就是上帝與聖經,但現實裡,他把囚徒當作廉價勞工,收受賄賂,剝削囚徒以自肥;監獄中,獄卒隨意打人殺人,在禁閉的環境中,囚徒只能噤聲,逆來順受。唯獨是安迪,表面奉迎,內心懷抱希望,他將一把小石錘藏於聖經內,暗中挖掘地道。獄友瑞德說:「有一種鳥是關不住的,他的羽毛散發著耀眼光芒。」

安迪不動聲色,以自己的專業知識,協助獄長獄卒逃稅,贏得獄長信任,為他洗黑錢;深宵的牢房裡,安迪每夜挖出一小塊泥土,堅持二十年,在一個雷電交加之夜出逃。他穿過牆洞,爬過糞渠;最後,在滂沱大雨中,安迪仰天長嘯,重獲自由,並揭發了獄長的犯罪證據。

安迪的故事,當然難與陳光誠類比。安迪逃出監獄圍牆,已能享受自由的甘露;陳光誠逃出被軟禁的家,外邊是一個更大的牢籠。安迪的救贖,在堅持希望,不讓內心火種熄滅;但是正如瑞德憂心忡忡地說,在監獄裡「希望是危險的」,普天之下,莫非王土,陳光誠幾經艱辛,最後的救贖,與王立軍一樣,是美國使館。

盲人逃獄,公安局長自保,救贖殊途同歸。《時代雜誌》連續兩星期以中國為封面故事,最新一期大字標題「中華醜聞共和國」,內文謂:中國這些日子,無論惡棍或英雄,他們最終的避難所,都是美國使館。親者痛,仇者快;如此戲碼,荷李活編劇自愧不如。

在一個極權的環境中,如何得到救贖?美國社會學者高夫曼在《庇護所》(Asylums) 一書中,描述「完全機構」(total institution) 如精神病院、監獄、庇護所裡,個人的「建制化」過程,但囚徒們仍有辦法活出自我,保持尊嚴。

首先,囚徒可佯裝按遊戲規則辦事,目的在得到特權或利益;亦可參與強權組織的思想改造活動,但別有用心,例如目的在串連社交圈子;囚徒也可引用官方的話語,為自己行為辯解;現實難面對,較消極的人,可以沉醉於電影電視與書本中,重建自己的世界。牢籠之中,虛情假義,有人加入組織,宣稱死命效忠,實質陽奉陰違;有人投入影像與文字世界,逃離現實,都是人們尋找救贖的方式。

但《肖申克的救贖》能振奮人心,乃因為它提示大家逃獄的思想準備,隨時為自由而戰,以下數點啟示,值得留意:

**權力會沖昏頭腦,獄長以為自己權力至高無上,無人管束,會放鬆戒備。

**強權能磨滅意志,但囚徒要保存內心的希望,這是任何人都不能奪去的。

**成功有幸運因素,不嘗試卻沒有希望,只能永遠在牢籠裡苟且偷安。

**洞挖了,不一定要用;但是,要保留一條後路,靜待時機。

**逃獄的洞不是一天能挖成,那麼,就挖二十年。

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4 comments:

  1. Please allow me to copy and paste my reply to a friend who sent me your article last week.

    "I read a book, a collection of articles, by Au a few years ago. He writes very well indeed and the following one (the above article) is another example.

    "You've seen the film? I haven't. I'll get to learn more about it from the Internet.

    The older I get, the more respect and admiration I have for people who are determined to and are patient and bold enough to pursue freedom, freedom of any kind, of any size. Ordinary people like me are slaves to so many things! Despite constant complaints and strong desires to improve ourselves in many respects and full knowledge of the right things to do, we just refuse to unlock the chains we put on ourselves.

    I can easily relate to the bird outside the cage in the famous hotel!

    Thank you so much for bringing the article to me!"

    To my great delight, I ran into this blog and saw the photos of the bird, which "I can easily relate to".

    I burst into laughter when I read that your hobby is "not having to do anything" in your profile. You're either kidding or have never been without a job. Last year, thinking that reading and learning were the only meaningful things for the rest of my life (I enjoy travelling too), I resigned. My supposed-to-be early retirement threw me down an abyss. Well,this public area is not the right place to describe my feelings. So, I would say, go on with your good job of thinking and writing!


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  2. Thanks for your encouraging kind words! I think early retirement is a blessing and luxury. Everything will be fine when one can find a cause to pursue. Best wishes!

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  3. Oh, I forgot to mention that I found a full-time job some months after my resignation. Anyway, that was truly a life-changing experience and made me understand more about what a job could mean to us, and about why some people, despite their age and wealth, insist on going to work. But of course, for some film directors, for example, their jobs are realization of their dreams. Jobs and retirements make up a thought-provoking topic. Woody Allen once said he needs to make movies to escape from pessimistic thoughts about the miserable world.

    Perhaps this posting should be put under your other article "Five ways to pursue dreams".

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